ANTIMICROBIALS CAN CAUSE HARM
Antimicrobials don't work for the majority of GI conditions and can cause severe short and long-term harm to the gut microbiome.1-6,14
ENTERO AID +GI™
ENTERO AID +GI™ is an all-natural, vegan Veterinary Health Product (NN.K5L1) authorized for sale by Health Canada. ENTERO AID +GI™ supports and maintains a healthy gut and bowel function, including normal stool quality and frequency.
For Dogs and Cats
FIBRE BOOST +GI™
FIBRE BOOST +GI™ is an all-natural, vegan Veterinary Health Product (NN.N7U8) authorized for sale by Health Canada. FIBRE BOOST +GI™ is a highly palatable, soluble and insoluble fibre supplement containing prebiotics, probiotics and minerals for promoting a strong immune system while maintaining a healthy microbiome to support gut and digestion, healthy anal glands and improved stool quality.
For Dogs and Cats
Antimicrobials are largely unnecessary in acute diarrhea1
- A study reviewed electronic health records of 3,189 cases of acute canine diarrhea in vet practices in the UK. While antimicrobials were prescribed in 49.7% of these cases, they found that only the provision of dietary modification advice and gastrointestinal nutraceuticals was positively associated with resolution of diarrhea. No such associations were found when antimicrobials were prescribed.2
- There is minimal (if any) proven benefit of antibiotic use in dogs with uncomplicated acute diarrhea. There is no basis to support the routine prescription and use of antibiotics in these cases.6
- Most cases of acute diarrhea are not due to pathogenic bacterial infections or are self-limiting, so antimicrobials are not indicated, do not hasten time to clinical resolution, and may cause further dysbiosis.20
There is no proven benefit for the use of antimicrobials for the treatment of acute GI upset1-3,6
- A Consensus Statement of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) advises that “Most bacterial enteropathogens are associated with self-limiting diarrhea, and injudicious administration of antimicrobials could be more harmful than beneficial”.21
- A double-blind placebo-controlled study showed there was no statistical difference between a commercial probiotic, metronidazole, and placebo. Dogs presenting with acute diarrhea achieved acceptable fecal consistency after 3.5 ± 2.2 days when receiving probiotic, 4.6 ± 2.4 days with metronidazole, and 4.8 ± 2.9 days with placebo.3
There are negative short and long-term effects of administering antimicrobials in healthy pets and those with underlying gastrointestinal disease1,4-6,14
- Antimicrobials can have a profound negative impact on the microbiome.1,14
- Opinions vary about the short and long-term effects of antibiotics on the microbiome, which plays an important role in health and immunity, but it’s clear that concern is warranted.6
- At day 63 in a study using tylosin, some dogs’ microbiome had not recovered two months after oral tylosin exposure.4
- Fecal dysbiosis index significantly increased in healthy dogs receiving metronidazole, indicating significant alterations in the microbiome structure and diversity, with some changes remaining up to 4 weeks after completion of antibiotic administration.5
Despite the frequency of antibiotic use for GI disease in dogs, there are relatively few indications for prescribing antimicrobials. Overuse could result in antimicrobial resistance and may have long-lasting effects on the host microbiome.6
Recommendations for the Management of GI Conditions in Pets
A CE accredited panel discussion included updated Recommendations for the Management of GI Conditions in Pets. They were presented by board-certified internal medicine specialists with vast clinical experience in gastroenterology and infectious diseases.
DVM, DVSc, Dipl. ACVIM
DVM, DVSc, Dipl. ACVIM
Tatjana K. Mirkovic
BSc, DVM, Dipl. ACVIM
Recommendations for the management of Mild Acute GI Upset
It’s free, and only takes two minutes to register
Recommendations for the management of Chronic Enteropathy
It’s free, and only takes two minutes to register
We need new roadmaps for how to approach acute and chronic enteropathy from a “Do No Harm” perspective.1,14 This means:
- PAUSING antimicrobial use
- Choosing safer options
- Shortening the duration of diarrhea while avoiding harm to our patient
- Reducing stress and discomfort for the pet and pet parent
ROADMAP FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MILD ACUTE GI UPSET.1
ROADMAP FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC ENTEROPATHY.14
Management of Mild Acute GI Upset1
- Medical grade clay to reduce time to resolution of acute diarrhea
- Synbiotics to enhance immune function and improve gut health
- Diet and hydration support
Management of Chronic Enteropathy14
- Medical clays to help resolve acute flares quickly
- Synbiotics to help correct dysbiosis and improve gut health
- Mixed fibre diet or supplementation
Supports and maintains a healthy gut and bowel function, including normal stool quality and frequency.
A highly palatable, soluble and insoluble fibre supplement containing prebiotics, probiotics and minerals for promoting a strong immune system while maintaining a healthy microbiome to support gut and digestion, healthy anal glands and improved stool quality.
PRO CARE +GI™ Probiotic, prebiotic and beta-glucans supplement
A synbiotic containing two bacterial strains, prebiotics (MOS), and beta-glucans. PRO CARE +GI™ promotes intestinal health and well-being by encouraging healthy intestinal flora, supplying nutrients to the gastrointestinal tract and maintaining a healthy immune system.
Electrolytes, prebiotics, and beta glucans for improved gut health. Contains taurine, B vitamins, and dextrose.
- Kilborn S, Carioto L, Mirkovic T.K. (2022, March 9). Pet Parents Have Come to Expect and Even Demand Antimicrobials for Mild Acute GI Upset …How can we change the narrative? CommuniVET Webcast. [Handout] https://koi-3qnn9yktze.marketingautomation.services/net/m?md=dgFVjj%2F8lhLwSptReWRbtXdvOumJkZjJ
- Singleton, D. A., Noble, P., Sánchez-Vizcaíno, F., Dawson, S., Pinchbeck, G. L., Williams, N. J., Radford, A. D., & Jones, P. H. (2019). Pharmaceutical Prescription in Canine Acute Diarrhoea: A Longitudinal Electronic Health Record Analysis of First Opinion Veterinary Practices. Frontiers in veterinary science, 6, 218. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00218
- Shmalberg, J., Montalbano, C., Morelli, G., & Buckley, G. J. (2019). A Randomized Double Blinded Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of a Probiotic or Metronidazole for Acute Canine Diarrhea. Frontiers in veterinary science, 6, 163. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00163
- Manchester, A. C., Webb, C. B., Blake, A. B., Sarwar, F., Lidbury, J. A., Steiner, J. M., & Suchodolski, J. S. (2019). Long-term impact of tylosin on fecal microbiota and fecal bile acids of healthy dogs. Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 33(6), 2605–2617. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15635
- Pilla, R., Gaschen, F. P., Barr, J. W., Olson, E., Honneffer, J., Guard, B. C., Blake, A. B., Villanueva, D., Khattab, M. R., AlShawaqfeh, M. K., Lidbury, J. A., Steiner, J. M., & Suchodolski, J. S. (2020). Effects of metronidazole on the fecal microbiome and metabolome in healthy dogs. Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 34(5), 1853–1866. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15871
- Grimes, M., & Lidbury, J. (2020, February 19). Antibiotics in canine GI disease: When to use and when to ditch. DVM 360. Retrieved June 6, 2022, from https://www.dvm360.com/view/antibiotics-in-canine-gi-disease-when-to-use-and-when-to-ditch
- Maki, C.R., Allen, S., Wang, M., Ward, S.H., Rude, B.J., Bailey, H.R., Harvey, R.B., Phillips, T.D. (2017). Calcium montmorillonite clay for the reduction of aflatoxin residues in milk and dairy products. Journal of Dairy and Veterinary Sciences. 2(3):1–8.
- Barshad, I. (1952). Absorptive and Swelling Properties of Clay-Water System. Clays Clay Miner. 1, 70–77. https://doi.org/10.1346/CCMN.1952.0010108
- Williams, L. B., & Haydel, S. E. (2010). Evaluation of the medicinal use of clay minerals as antibacterial agents. International geology review, 52(7/8), 745–770. https://doi.org/10.1080/00206811003679737
- Adamis, Z., Williams, R. B. (2005). Bentonite, kaolin and selected clay minerals. [Report]. Environmental health criteria, 231. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/43102
- Fournier, Q., Serra, J. C., Williams, C., & Bavcar, S. (2021). Chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea in dogs and its management with smectite: Results of a monocentric open-label randomized clinical trial. Veterinary and comparative oncology, 19(1), 25–33. https://doi.org/10.1111/vco.12631
- Hahn, K. A., Carpenter, R. H. (2008). Calcium Aluminosilicate (CAS) in the Treatment of Intractable Diarrhea in Dogs with Cancer. Intern J Appl Res Vet Med, 6(3):181–184.
- Khediri, F., Mrad, A. I., Azzouz, M., Doughi, H., Najjar, T., Mathiex-Fortunet, H., Garnier, P., & Cortot, A. (2011). Efficacy of diosmectite (smecta) in the treatment of acute watery diarrhoea in adults: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. Gastroenterology research and practice, 2011, 783196. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/783196
- Carioto L, Kilborn S, Mirkovic T.K. (2022, September 28). Changing the narrative. Tools for reducing use of antimicrobials for GI conditions in companion animals. CommuniVET Webcast. [Handout] https://koi-3QNN9YKTZE.marketingautomation.services/net/m?md=juMTkV2YNzww7Avnt3E72d9%2FsMPziMip
- Rudinsky, A. J., Rowe, J. C., & Parker, V. J. (2018). Nutritional management of chronic enteropathies in dogs and cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 253(5), 570–578. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.253.5.570
- Lenox C. E. (2021). Nutritional Management for Dogs and Cats with Gastrointestinal Diseases. The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice, 51(3), 669–684. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2021.01.006
- Linder, D. (2022, February 11). Featuring fiber: Understanding types of fiber and clinical uses. Today’s Veterinary Practice. Retrieved June 6, 2022, from https://todaysveterinarypractice.com/nutrition/understanding-types-fiber-clinical-uses/
- Alonso-Cotoner, C., Abril-Gil, M., Albert-Bayo, M., Mall, J. G., Expósito, E., González-Castro, A. M., Lobo, B., & Santos, J. (2021). The Role of Purported Mucoprotectants in Dealing with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Functional Diarrhea, and Other Chronic Diarrheal Disorders in Adults. Advances in therapy, 38(5), 2054–2076. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12325-021-01676-z
- Da Silva, K., Guilly, S., Thirion, F., Le Chatelier, E., Pons, N., Roume, H., Quinquis, B., Ehrlich, S. D., Bekkat, N., Mathiex-Fortunet, H., Sokol, H., & Doré, J. (2022). Long-term diosmectite use does not alter the gut microbiota in adults with chronic diarrhea. BMC microbiology, 22(1), 54. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12866-022-02464-7
- Frey, E., Costin, M., Granick, J., Kornya, M., & Weese, J. S. (2022). 2022 AAFP/AAHA Antimicrobial Stewardship Guidelines. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 58(4), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.5326/1547-3317-58.4.1
- Marks, S. L., Rankin, S. C., Byrne, B. A., & Weese, J. S. (2011). Enteropathogenic bacteria in dogs and cats: diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment, and control. Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 25(6), 1195–1208. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00821.x
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